Some subset of any Financial Services organization’s workforce has BYOD fever. For many in our business, that fever has infected one or more senior leaders who cannot be ignored. In Financial Services, we are collectively responsible for protecting $trillions of other people’s assets.
Most of the BYOD fever seems to be associated with new mobile devices. From what I can observe, many Financial Services organizations are emphasizing their attraction to Apple iPads over Android or other alternatives. That behavior seems out of phase with our due diligence obligations.
Apple has invested what must be a tremendous amount of resource and effort in building an image that incorporates something like “trust me, but I will not respond to your requests for transparency…” For some reason, that seems to work. This is in spite of regular patching of vulnerabilities that could have been discovered at architectural analysis, design, coding, static code security analysis, QA or penetration testing. Apparently those activities do not incorporate effective secure software practices.
The latest example of Apple’s approach to software security made the news over the last weekend. A vulnerability in iCloud enabled a trivial attack to discover the passwords of a number of targeted individuals. Those passwords were then used to steal those user’s iCloud “protected” personal files. Apple did not enforce a “max attempts” threshold for failed attempts to login to iCloud, which permitted attackers to pound away at the URL https://fmipmobile.icloud.com/fmipservice/device/$apple_id/initClient with basic auth attempts using scripts or malware that identified itself as ‘User-Agent’: ‘FindMyiPhone/376 CFNetwork/672.0.8 Darwin/14.0.0′. An easy-to-understand proof-of-concept application is available on github.
Remember, in Financial Services, implementing some type of failed-login governor has been standard practice since we have been using the Internet for business. Our constituents expect some type of “n-failed-login-attempts-and-you-are-locked-out.” They may not consciously think through a detailed rationale, it is just a small but essential part of exhibiting a threshold level of Financial Services due diligence. I assume that one possible root cause was that Apple engineers and architects must have reasoned that either nobody could format a basic auth HTTP POST with some json payload and sling it at their iCloud web service interface, or they believed that their closed ecosystem and black box approach to security implementations would keep their web service interface from being discovered. Alternatively, they specified a max-failed-login-attempts feature into iCloud designs, but Apple management directed them to remove it based on non-technical rationale. There could be other root causes of this vulnerability, but with the resources available to Apple, none seem in alignment with their “trust us” story-telling. Their iCloud authentication implementation was just not fit for Financial Services workforce operating environments — while they have been arguing that “”iCloud is built with industry-standard security practices and employs strict policies to protect your data.”
Brute forcing passwords is a proven, decades-old practice that is highly effective unless resisted (because people, in large numbers, behave so predictably). Financial Services-grade businesses understand this and implement and enforce policies that generally resist bald, brute force attacks. It is a small, simple, basic, and essential characteristic of any Internet-ready system hosting non-public resources. The fact that Apple implemented an Internet-facing authentication interface without resistance to brute force password attack, then failed to implement defense in depth (i.e., instrument the environment with effective IDS/IPS, identity fraud detection, and more) demonstrates — again — their unfitness for the Financial Services workforce environment.
Could it be that Apple considers hackappcom’s proof of concept application and demonstrations of its use just another side-show? They reacted to news about the celebrity data theft using what I read as legalistic and deflecting language:
“None of the cases we have investigated has resulted from any breach in any of Apple’s systems,” Nat Kerris, a company spokeswoman, said in a statement. “We are continuing to work with law enforcement to help identify the criminals involved.”
Apple, via CEO Tim Cook continued the Apple ecosystem and its technology are safe theme, blaming users for the recent iCloud vulnerabilities and their exploit, saying in a WSJ interview that Apple would ratchet up user awareness communications about stronger and safer passwords, and apparently will not be investing in more effective engineering:
“When I step back from this terrible scenario that happened and say what more could we have done, I think about the awareness piece,” he said. “I think we have a responsibility to ratchet that up. That’s not really an engineering thing.”
Mr. Cook also said that Apple would would begin sending users email messages and push notifications when certain AppleID events occur or when a user’s account data lands on a new device.
After a 40-hour investigation “concluded that there was no breach of its data servers. The company has said it discovered a number of celebrity accounts were compromised by targeted attacks…”
Sure. Not ready for Financial Services.
“Hacker leaks dozens of nude celebrity pics in alleged iCloud hack.”
By Cody Lee, Aug 31, 2014
“Apple reportedly patches Find My iPhone vulnerability to hack Apple ID accounts.” By Christian Zibreg, Sep 1, 2014
“ibrute.” By hackappcom
“Apple patches ‘Find My iPhone’ exploit.” By Adrian Kingsley-Hughes, Sep 1, 2014
“iCloud: iCloud security and privacy overview.”
“Privacy Collides With the Wild Web.” By Mike Isaac, Sep 2, 2014
http://mobile.nytimes.com/2014/09/03/technology/trove-of-nude-photos-sparks-debate-over-online-behavior.html?_r=0 (downloaded Wed 09/03/2014 5:46 AM)
“Apple Says It Will Add New iCloud Security Measures After Celebrity Hack.” By Brian X. Chen, Sep 4, 2014 http://mobile.nytimes.com/blogs/bits/2014/09/04/apple-says-it-will-add-new-security-measures-after-celebrity-hack/
“Tim Cook Says Apple to Add Security Alerts for iCloud Users — Apple CEO Denies a Lax Attitude Toward Security Allowed Hackers to Post Nude Photos of Celebrities.” By Daisuke Wakabayashi, Sep 5, 2014 http://online.wsj.com/news/article_email/tim-cook-says-apple-to-add-security-alerts-for-icloud-users-1409880977-lMyQjAxMTA0MDAwNDEwNDQyWj
“Apple Media Advisory: Update to Celebrity Photo Investigation.” http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2014/09/02Apple-Media-Advisory.html (downloaded Sat 09/06/2014 5:56 PM)